The history of organized camping in the U.S. has often been tied to Native American culture. This connection has led to cultural appropriation and the misuse of Native American themes and traditions.

Camp Tecumseh aims to honor the history of Native American influence in the camping industry by making any reference to Native American culture at Camp an educational one.

The following is a list of all the cabin names we use at Camp, and a brief overview of that tribe’s history. These pieces of information are also displayed in each cabin so that all campers and guests can learn a little more about each tribe.



The Catawba tribe inhabited the Piedmont region of South Carolina. “Early Catawbas lived in villages which were surrounded by a wooden palisade or wall. There was a large council house in the village as well as a sweat lodge, homes, and an open plaza for meetings, games, and dances. The homes were rounded on top and made of bark. The dwellings were small with extended families living in a single structure. Catawbas were farmers. They planted crops like corn and squash along the banks of the river.”

Learn more about Catawba


The Cherokee originated from what is now the southeastern United States, but were forced to relocate to Oklahoma in the mid 1800s. Prior to their forced removal, “the Cherokee Nation had a written language, a newspaper that was published in both Cherokee and English, and a constitutional government.”

“Today, the Cherokee Nation is the largest tribe in the United States with more than 430,000 tribal citizens worldwide. More than 141,000 Cherokee Nation citizens reside within the tribe’s reservation boundaries in northeastern Oklahoma.”

Learn more about Cherokee


The Chickasaw were originally from present-day North Mississippi, Northwest Alabama, West Tennessee, and Southwest Kentucky. The Chickasaw were part of the “Great Removal”, or “Trail of Tears,” where they were forced to leave their land and move west to Oklahoma.

They built some of the earliest schools, banks, and businesses in what was known as Indian Territory, in Oklahoma.

Learn more about Chickasaw


Like the Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Catawba tribes, the Creek – now known as the Muscogee Nation – originally hail from the southeastern United States, particularly Southern Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and Northern Florida.

The Muscogee Nation is now part of the 5 Civilized Tribes that includes the Choctaw, Cherokee, Seminole, and Chickasaw nations. The Muscogee Nation is the fourth largest tribe today, with around 97,000 citizens.

Like other nations who were part of the “Trail of Tears,” the Muscogee (Creek) were removed from their homeland by the US Government and now reside in Oklahoma.

Learn more about Creek


The Delaware Nation, or Lenape in their original language, is the oldest known Native American nation in the Northern Hemisphere.

They originate from present-day New Jersey, Delaware, New York, and Pennsylvania.

Today, they live in small communities all over the United States and Canada, with a larger community in Oklahoma.

The Lenape people were given the name Delaware by European settlers due to their proximity to the Delaware River, which was also named by settlers, and not the people who originally lived on that land.

Learn more about Delaware


The Wendat-Huron nation was originally from Ontario, Canada, and was given the name Huron by French settlers. The name has to do with their style of hair at that time.

The Wendat-Huron lived in bark-covered longhouses that housed extended families all in one place.

As settlers began to encroach on their land, the Wendat-Huron drifted between parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, Ontario, Ohio, and Quebec. Eventually, they were forced to sell their lands and moved west to Kansas and Oklahoma.

Learn more about Huron


“The Kickapoo are a Woodland tribe, speaking an Algonquian language, and were related to the Sac and Fox.” 

By the mid 1700s, the Kickapoo lived in two communities: one in Illinois along the Sangamon River, and the other in Indiana, east of the Wabash River.

As is true for most Native American communities, the Kickapoo were eventually forced to leave their native lands and migrated west. Today, there are Kickapoo communities in Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, and Mexico.

Learn more about Kickapoo


The Miami, or Myaamia – meaning “downstream people,” lived in an assortment of villages along the Wabash River, from Fort Wayne to Vincennes, Indiana. They also inhabited land where the St. Joseph River meets Lake Michigan.

“Together these villages maintained a common language, hunting, farming, and cultural practices. They often came together to collectively defend themselves and negotiate peace with neighboring tribes and Europeans.”

The Miami were eventually forced to leave Indiana and the Upper Midwest and relocated for some time in Kansas before again being forced to relocate to Oklahoma. There, they became neighbors with other displaced tribes from the Midwest including the Wyandot, Peoria, Ottawa, Seneca-Cayuga, and Shawnee.

Learn more about Miami


The Mohawk were part of the Iroquois Confederacy – a name which derives not from a native language, but from French settlers – and were the easternmost tribe of that confederacy. They lived near what is now Schenectady, New York.

Many Mohawk sided with the British during the American Revolution and subsequently migrated to Canada.

“Although they are involved in many professions, contemporary Mohawk people may be best known for their work on high steel construction projects, including the Empire State Building and the George Washington Bridge, both in New York City.”

Learn more about Mohawk


Very early records of the Osage indicate they were part of the Dhegiha Siouan language speaking tribes in the Ohio River Valley. By the time Europeans arrived, the Osage were living near what is now St. Louis, and along the Missouri and Osage rivers.

The Osage were forcibly removed from their homelands and made to relocate in Oklahoma.


During the 18th century, the Ottaway slowly migrated from the Atlantic region of the US and Canada to the midwest, settling in what is now Ohio and Michigan.

They were part of the “Three Fires Confederacy” with the Ojibwe and Potawatomi.

They were forcibly removed from their land by the US Government and were made to relocate to Kansas.

Today, there are Ottawa communities in Michigan and Ontario.

Learn more about Ottawa


The Iowa, or Ioway, lived primarily in the state now known as Iowa. “The Iowans call themselves Bah-Kho-Je which means grey snow, probably derived from the fact that during the winter months their dwellings looked grey, as they were covered with fire-smoked snow.” 

Exploits in war were very important, and a man might change his name to reflect these exploits, thus an individual might have many names during his lifetime. The Iowa also have a great respect for the eagle, believing that this beautiful bird is the connection between the Tribe and God.

Learn more about Iowa


The Menominee, an Algonkian-speaking people, are the only present-day tribe in Wisconsin whose origin story indicates they have always lived in Wisconsin. The Menominee refer to themselves as Mamaceqtaw (pronounced ma-ma-chay-tau), meaning “the people.” Other tribes called them Menominee (derived from manomin) – an Algonkian word for wild rice – because it is a major food source for the tribe.

Learn more about Menominee


The Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is a confederation of Kaskaskia, Peoria, Piankashaw and  Wea Indians united into a single tribe in 1854. “The tribes which constitute The Confederated Peorias, as they then were called, originated in the lands bordering the Great Lakes and drained by the mighty Mississippi. They are Illinois or Illini Indians, descendants of those who created the great mound civilizations in the central United States two thousand to three thousand years ago.” 

The city of Peoria, Illinois was named for the Peoria tribe, one of the five tribes of the Illinois confederacy, who long inhabited the area before European settlement. Peoria is one of the state’s oldest settled locations.


The Potawatomi are an Algonkian-speaking tribe which has lived in the Great Lakes region for at least four centuries. “Oral traditions of the Potawatomi, Ojibwe, and Ottawa assert that at one time all three tribes were one people who lived at the Straits of Mackinac. From there, they split off into three separate groups, and the Potawatomi were “Keepers of the Sacred Fire.” As such, they were the leading tribe of the alliance the three Indian nations formed after separating from one another. The Potawatomi became trading partners and military allies of the French, fighting alongside them in many battles through 1712-1735.

Learn more about Potawatomi


In the Seneca language, the Seneca are known as O-non-dowa-gah, (pronounced: Oh-n’own-dough-wahgah) or “Great Hill People.” The Seneca relied heavily on agriculture for food, growing corn, beans, and squash. In addition to raising crops, the early Seneca were also subsistence hunters and fishers. “The Senecas were highly skilled at warfare, and were considered fierce adversaries. But the Seneca were also renowned for their sophisticated skills at diplomacy and oratory and their willingness to unite with the other original five nations to form the Iroquois Confederacy of Nations.” Language, song, art, dance, and sports are all vital aspects of Seneca culture.

Learn more about Seneca


The Shawnee Tribe is an Algonquian-speaking people, who originally occupied lands in the Ohio Valley in the present day states of Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Indiana. The Shawnee were known for being fierce warriors, so other tribes would invite them to come and share their lands in return for protection.

Tecumseh was a Shawnee leader known for being a highly skilled warrior, orator, and advocate for protecting their land from the British. In 1808, Tecumseh and his brother, Tenskwatawa, also known as the “Prophet”, established a “headquarters” for the confederacy on the banks of the Tippecanoe River, the site of present day Prophets Town, Indiana. “On November 7, 1811, while Tecumseh was away, the alliance suffered a setback when Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison attacked and defeated the “Prophet” and his men at Tippecanoe. But, Tecumseh persisted, and when the War of 1812 erupted, he led his forces to the support of the British and was rewarded with a regular commission as a brigadier general, having under his command some 2,000 warriors of the allied tribes. He was killed in the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813.”


The Eel River tribe was originally from northwest Indiana. They lived where the Eel River met the Wabash River in what is now Cass County. They also inhabited an area on Sugar Creek near what is now Thorntown, Indiana.

The Eel River were never a highly populated tribe, and eventually became part of the Miami Nation.

Learn more about Eel River


The Illini were migratory people. They traveled from place to place as the seasons changed. They also moved to get away from other tribes who often attacked them. In the spring and summer they lived in large villages located along the banks of rivers. In the late summer and winter they divided into smaller bans and moved to hunting camps. The work of men was hunting and warfare. Men hunted buffalo, deer, bear, elk, and smaller animals. The bow and arrow and war club were the traditional weapons of the Illini. Women did most of the work in the villages. They built the homes. They prepared animal skins for clothing, robes, and blankets. They gathered firewood. They prepare the ground for the gardens. Women gathered nuts and berries, and also harvested crops such as squash, beans, and corn.

Learn more about Illinois


The Oneida Nation became the first ally to America when they joined the colonists in their fight for independence during the American Revolutionary War. Oneida Nation homelands originally consisted of more than six millions acres stretching from the St. Lawrence River to the Susquehanna River. Storytelling is an important component of the Oneida’s culture. These oral traditions and legends have been passed from generation to generation, teaching Oneidas how to live, act, and care for one another, as well as how to manage during the unpredictable seasons.


The Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca people had been warring against each other. The Haudenosaunee was founded at Onondaga after the Peacemaker visited these warring nations. The nations of the Haudenosaunee came together after agreeing to work together peacefully rather than continuing to battle each other. The Haudenosaunee is considered to be one of the oldest participatory democracies on earth, and provided an important structural model for the Founding Fathers developing the United States Constitution.

Learn more about Onondaga


The Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma (Pawnee Nation) has a long and proud history spanning more than 700 years. The Pawnees, classified as a “friendly tribe” by the US Government, were men and women of great courage and endurance. Some of the Pawnee warriors’ battles fought to preserve lives, lands and possessions were considered legendary.

Learn more about Pawnee


From the Southwest, the Pima were farmers who usually lived in a single location. They made small, one-room houses near rivers for irrigation. Because the Pima typically lived in one place, they created small towns and cities, and strong tribes and political organizations.

Learn more about Pima


The Winnebago are originally from central Wisconsin and northern Illinois. After fighting with the Potawatomi, and battling through smallpox and measles epidemics, the Tribe lost most of its members. 

They began signing treaties and losing land to the US Government in the 1820s and 1830s. They were moved west to Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota, before eventually re-settling to their current location in Nebraska.

Learn more about Winnebago


The Wyandot people lived all over the upper midwest including Ontario, Michigan, and Wisconsin. In the 1700s, they settled in the southeast corner of Michigan, including in what is now Detroit. 

In particular, the Wyandot of Anderdon Nation in Michigan is one of a handful of current Wyandot (or Wyandotte) tribes that exist separately, but with a shared history.

Learn more about Wyandot


The Abnaki people first lived in what is now upstate New York and New England, and later lived as far south as Delaware. They usually lived in small groups led by a chief who would utilize consensus-based decision making with the tribe. They farmed, fished, and hunted for food.

The Abnaki allied with the French against the English, and after several defeats, the dwindling number of Abnaki migrated to Canada.

Learn more about Abnaki


The Hopi tribe has lived in the same region of the southwest – what is now Arizona – for the entirety of the tribe’s history.

They have continued to “live as peaceful and humble farmers respectful of the land and its resources,” even as outside influences have come and gone.

Learn more about Hopi


The Choctaw people originally lived in the south and southeast, in Alabama and Missouri.

Today, they are the third largest nation in the United States with more than 200,000 members and 11,000 employees. 

After they were forcibly removed from their land, they were part of the Trail of Tears and are now settled in Oklahoma.

Learn more about Choctaw


Kiva is a Hope word that refers to small round and rectangular rooms in pueblos. These rooms were used for tribal rituals, political meetings, and casual gatherings.

Learn more


The Cayuga Nation is known as “The People of the Swamp.” Cayugas are one of the original five members of the Haudenosaunee (The People of the Longhouse). The Cayuga Nation’s homeland is found in the Finger Lakes Region of a territory now called New York. 

“Their way of living was admired by many of the founding fathers of the United States of America. Many governance principles of the Haudenosaunee were installed into the American form of governance.” 

In 1794, the Treaty of Canandaigua was signed between the United States and the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida and Mohawk) to establish sovereignty over its land. This treaty remains in full force today. 

Learn more about Cayuga


“The Crow (Apsáalooke) Tribe has a membership of approximately 11,000, of whom approximately 7,900 reside on the Crow Indian Reservation in south central Montana. The Crow Indian Reservation is the largest of the seven Indian Reservations in the state, encompassing 2.3 million acres.” Eighty-five percent of the members who live on the Reservation speak Crow as their first language. 

The Crow people are known for their Crow writing system that is taught daily in schools on the reservation. Their land in Montana has some of the richest deposits of strippable low sulfur coal. “One active coal mine, the Sarpy, and several oil and gas fields are yielding important economic resources for the Crow Tribe”. 

The Crow Fair (a weeklong celebration) has occurred annually since 1918 and is considered the largest modern day American Indian encampment in the world. 

Learn more about Crow


The Erie Tribe is a no-longer-extant tribe whose descendants may be included among today’s Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma. “The Erie were an obscure group that lived south of Lake Erie during the 1600s. No known European visited an Erie Village, and the tribe’s language was not recorded. Scholars speculate that they were Iroquois, based on similarities between them and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples. It is believed that the Erie were an alliance of several tribes, with each having one or more towns. These sedentary villages were densely populated and extended from present Buffalo, New York, south to Toledo, Ohio, and east to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.” 

Learn more about Erie


The Lakota Tribe consists of seven tribes who were known as warriors and buffalo-hunters. “In the 1770s, Lakota Sioux tribe members acquired horses and learned how to hunt buffalo on the plains of the Dakotas, Wisconsin and even areas of Canada.” 

Today, members of the Lakota are found on the five main reservations in South Dakota. One of the most important aspects of the culture is the Lakota language. It is a Siouan language that is spoken by many tribe members, even today. Religion and spirituality also play a large role in the culture of the Lakota Sioux. Many sacred ceremonies are still conducted including the Sundance, done to bring balance to the people and honor the creator.


The Mohave Tribe, also known as the Mojave, are Pipa Aha Macav – “The People by the River.” They were prosperous farmers with well-established villages and trade networks that stretched as far away as the Pacific Ocean. The Tribe’s spiritual leader, Mutavilya, created the Colorado River, and instructed the Mojave in the arts of civilization. “In the 16th century, the Mojaves were the largest concentration of people in the Southwest. 

A United States military outpost was established in 1859 on the east bank of the Colorado River to give safe passage to American immigrants from east to west.” After the military fort was closed in 1891, it became a boarding school until 1930. The Fort Mojave Indian Reservation is located in the Colorado River in the vicinity of Needles, California. The Reservation covers nearly 42,000 acres across Arizona, California, and Nevada.


The Mohican Tribe, “Muh-he-conneok” (The People of the Water that are Never Still), lived near rivers to be close to food, water and transportation. Their homes, called wigwams, were circular and made of bent saplings covered with hides or bark. Mohican women were generally in charge of the home, children, and garden, while men traveled greater distances to hunt, fish or serve as warriors. Today, many Mohicans live in northwestern Wisconsin. The Arvid E. Miller Memorial Library Museum is an excellent resource for Mohican History.


The Ojibwa Tribe are also called the Chippewa, which is more common in the United States. There are a couple of different ways the name has been translated, including ‘Ojibway’ and ‘Ojibwe’. The Ojibwa referred to themselves as Anishinaabeg, or ‘original people’. The name ‘Ojibwe’ means “puckered,” and some think that is because they wore a puckered seam on their moccasins. The Ojibwe live in both the United States and Canada and occupy land around the entire Great Lakes, including Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Ontario. The Ojibwa are known for their birchbark canoes, mining and trade in copper, as well as harvesting maple sugar and syrup and wild rice.


The Omaha Tribe, “those going against the wind or current,” moved around a lot before settling primarily in Nebraska. “The Omaha thrived through the 1700s, as they were excellent hunters and good farmers. They always grew good gardens of corn, beans, squash and melons. Buffalo served as their general store, providing food, clothing, blankets, rope, moccasins, fuel, shelter, and utensils.” Nebraska Indian Community College was founded in 1973 to provide quality higher education opportunities for the Omaha, Santee, and Dakota reservations.


Paiute means water ute, and refers to their preference for living near water sources. The Paiute lived nomadic lifestyles and traveled to various areas throughout the year to harvest food and natural materials in the appropriate seasons. “During Spring, the Southern Paiute practiced floodplain gardening, creating reservoirs and irrigation ditches to water corn, squash, melons, gourds, sunflowers, beans, and wheat.” Pauite would collect agate, a type of rock used for making stone tools. Their skill at making these tools was widely known and respected. Their arrowheads, spear points and more were traded with many surrounding tribes.


The Seminole Tribe has lived in Florida for thousands of years. They run one of the largest cattle operations in the United States. “Domestic cattle had only first arrived with Ponce de Leon’s failed expedition, but the Native people learned quickly how to raise them, and soon the Seminole were the main suppliers of beef to the Spanish colonies.” The Seminole are also known for their art, Chikee (log cabin-type homes), basket making, deadwork, and handmade dolls. The Seminole own Hard Rock Hotel & Casinos with locations in 74 countries.


The Eastern Shoshone Tribe, now located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, has been in this mountain range for almost 12,000 years. “In 1805, the Shoshones encountered and then directed the Lewis and Clark expedition towards their goal of finding a waterway to the Pacific Ocean.” With the help of the Shoshone this expedition would have never succeeded. Sacajawea, who was then about 17 years old and carrying a newborn infant, accompanied Lewis and Clark, and helped guide them through the northwest to the Pacific Ocean.


The Teton Sioux was another name for the Lakota Tribe (referring to their dialect and location west of the plains of Dakota). They are composed of seven tribal bands and are the largest and most western of the three groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The seven tribal bands include: Ogalala, Sicangu, Hunkpapa, Miniconjou, Sihasapa, Itazipacola, and Oohenupa.


The Wichita have resided on the southern plains for a thousand years. Located in south Kansas to northern Texas, they were known for both their bison-hunting and horticulture economy, with rich fields of corn, beans, and squash. Horses acquired from Spanish colonies allowed the Wichita to follow herds of buffalo over a much wider range and hunt them more efficiently. Trade was extensive and included commodities such as glazed paint pottery, obsidian, turquoise pendants, and shell beads. 

“While developing new skills at technical institutions, colleges and universities, Wichita people attempt to maintain their identities and links with the past. Some young people attend college during the week, returning home on weekends and holidays to participate in family and community gatherings. Here, memories of the past are shared with the younger generation by relating stories of life in the grass house villages of the Southern Plains or of growing up on farms and in rural communities in early Oklahoma.”


Home of the Quechan (pronounced Kwuh-tsan) Indians, Fort Yuma-Quechan Reservation is located along both sides of the Colorado River near Yuma, Arizona. “The Yuma, who today prefer to be called the Quechan, have long been known as fighters. For centuries they battled the Papago, Apache, and other tribes for control of the fertile floodplains of the Colorado River which is the boundary between California and Arizona. Largely an agriculture community, the Tribe leases its 700 acre farm to a non-Indian farmer. It also operates a long-term sand and gravel lease with a non-Indian corporation which employs 8 to 10 tribal members.”


Hinono’ei, the Arapaho people, lived in the Great Lakes region along the Mississippi River. “Around 1680, they began to migrate out of the Great Lakes area after being forcibly moved or pushed out of their established territory by the whites and traditional enemy tribes. Their adaptation to newer lands on the vast Great Plains, and their will to survive and advance their people, included making weapons such as the bow and arrow and the spear. As the horse and the buffalo flourished, the Arapahos became self-sustaining in their new territory.” Today, the Cheyenne and Arapaho are federally recognized as one tribe and known as the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes. However, while the tribes function as one Nation, each tribe still maintains their culture, traditions, customs, social dances, ceremonies, and languages.


Tsistsistas, is the Cheyenne word meaning “Human Beings” or “The People.” “The Cheyenne are descended from an ancient, Algonquian-language speaking tribe referred to as Chaa. They were also historically referred to as the Marsh People of the Great Lakes region, as they lived along the head of the Mississippi River in the central part of what is now the state of Minnesota.” Today, the Cheyenne and Arapaho are federally recognized as one tribe and known as the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes. However, while the tribes function as one Nation, each tribe still maintains their culture, traditions, customs, social dances, ceremonies, and languages.


The Comanche Nation said in their our native language “Nʉmʉnʉʉ” (NUH-MUH-NUH) means “The People”. Also known as “Lords of the Plains” were once a part of the Shoshone Tribe. “In the late 1600’s and early 1700’s, they moved off from our Shoshone kinsmen onto the northern Plains and then southerly in search of a new homeland.” The Comanche ultimately settled in Southwest Oklahoma. The horse was a key element in Comanche culture. “The people mastered their skills on horseback and gained a tremendous advantage in times of war. They fought battles on horseback which was a skill unknown among other Indian peoples of that time.” They were also highly skilled at breeding and trading the horse, which became an important resource for the people and radically changed life on the plains.


The Sioux are one of the largest and oldest Native American tribes in North America, dating back three thousand years. “With a territory that spanned thousands of square miles at the peak of their strength, the Sioux are one of the most well-known and influential tribes in the history of the United States.” The Sioux live in the Great Plains, with a massive territory spanning modern states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska – the Great Sioux Nation. They were masters of horseback riding, hunting buffalo and living a nomadic life. The terms “Lakota,” “Nakota,” and “Dakota” are often used interchangeably with “Sioux,” and they are the three largest subsets of the Great Sioux Nation.


The Chippewa, also known as the Ojibway, Ojibwe, and Anishinaabe, are one of the largest and most powerful nations in North America, having nearly 150 different bands throughout the northern United States — primarily Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan;  and southern Canada.The Ojibwe language did not originally have its own alphabet, so  spellings of Ojibwe words in English can sometimes vary, and are used interchangeably. The Chippewa were hunters, fishers, and farmers. Their fierce warlike reputation and their sheer numbers made the Chippewa one of the most feared tribes.


The Iroquois originally lived near Lake Ontario and along the Mohawk River in New York State. The name “Iroquois” refers to a language, not the particular tribe itself.” In fact, the Iroquois people called themselves the Haudenosaunee, or ‘the people of the longhouse.’” Around 1600, five tribes – the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas – banded together to form a confederacy. A sixth tribe, the Tuscaroras, joined in 1722. The Iroquois Tribes were best known for their large longhouses made of saplings and sheathed with elm bark, each housing many families. The men built houses and palisades (fence or defensive wall), fished, hunted, and engaged in military activities. The women produced crops of corn, beans, and squash, gathered wild foods, and prepared all clothing.


The Mingos were an independent group in the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. The group was largely made of Senecas and Cayugas. The Mingos migrated to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century, as part of a movement of multiple Native American tribes to the region which had been an unpopulated Iroquois hunting ground for decades. The Mingos were not technically considered a tribe, as there was no official Mingo language or culture. Mingos were heavily involved in battles against white settlers during the late 1700s. Like their Shawnee and Delaware neighbors, most Mingos relocated west after the collapse of native resistance in the 1790s. Today, the descendants of the Mingos can be found in Oklahoma and are known as Seneca-Cayugas.


In the early 18th century, Wea people settled in villages along the Wabash River between what would become Terre Haute and Logansport, Indiana. They established a large settlement called Ouiatenon (wee-ah-teh-non). In 1717, the French built Fort Ouiatenon, named for the Wea tribes in the area, as a fur trading post. It was one of the earliest settlements in what was to become the State of Indiana. The original Fort Ouiatenon was ordered to be destroyed by President George Washington in 1791 because local tribes were using it as a base of operations in resistance against the westward expansion of white American settlers. A replica of Fort Ouiatenon was built in 1930, and is now the focal point of Fort Ouiatenon Historical Park in Lafayette, IN.